3 Marketing Programs to Kickstart Summer

Too early to talk Q3? Nope.

For many companies, Q3 is slow. Summer vacay is in full swing, and those of us back in the office are itching to pack it in early. And Europe? Literally the entire continent is eating gelato at the seaside until mid-August.

Yes, it’s summertime and the livin is easy (as Gershwin wrote and Billie Holiday turned into magic—you really should listen right here). It’s everyone’s favorite season but Q3 can be the toughest time of year for B2B. So why not plan ahead and take advantage of the lull?

Here’s three ideas to kick start your Q3 plan (or recharge marketing any time of the year).

1. The Summer of the Sprint

For those familiar with agile project management, scrums and sprints are a big deal. While the marketing team isn’t responsible for product development, which is usually the context for agile, you can still apply the idea to marketing.

Pick three sprint themes to tackle this summer. Maybe your customer onboarding needs a refresher, or nurture emails that have been running on autopilot need some love, or you’ve been meaning to connect with new influencers to expand your reach but haven’t had the time.

No matter what you have going on, I’m pretty sure you can find a few projects that dropped off the radar, and those will be your sprints. From there, it’s all about planning and execution.

Here’s a quick breakdown of how a sprint runs:

  1. Identify sprint theme
  2. Pinpoint goals and scope the work
  3. Select team members and responsibilities
  4. Schedule kickoff meeting and daily scrum
  5. Go
  6. Meet at the end for a project review
  7. Move on to the next sprint

Week-long sprints are great because they’re so fast. On Monday you kickoff, and by Friday you’ve achieved something. The momentum never has time to wane, and before you know it, you’re on to the next thing. If you have a bigger project, try two or three-week sprints.

By the end of the summer, the team will feel great about crushing a few big projects and you’ll have results to show for it.

2. The Summer of A/B Love

You only need to attend one conference a year to feel cosmically bad about the A/B tests you’re not running.

When it comes to email marketing, web presence, messaging, and pretty much everything else we do, A/B testing is the one thing we should be doing, yet tends to get kicked to the curb. A shame, since A/B testing can actually help identify valuable insights that can’t be found by other means.

Build a few important A/B tests into your Q3 plan. If that doesn’t sound like fun, divide into Team A and Team B and see who wins.

If you can find a way to gamify the tests, you’ll get the whole team writing better copy, tightening up messaging, and re-imagining landing pages for better conversion.

Regardless of what you’re testing this summer, take the time to do it right. Also take the time to listen to this podcast, where two wicked smart economists discuss data and causation.

And speaking of gamification, don’t forget to pick a nice outdoor patio for happy hour to celebrate the winning team!

3. The Summer of Trying Something New

Even if summer isn’t a slow time for your organization, it’s a great time to kick the tires on a new tool or platform. If you wait to start assessing vendors and doing demos until Q4, it could be too late to sign a deal and get up and running in time for the new year.

So think about the tools and initiatives you’ve been meaning to explore and get into it.

Here are a few solutions we love:


Pretty sure we might have hit maximum overload on ABM about four months ago, but while many are familiar with the concept, most are far from implementing it or understanding how to measure ABM success.

Over the past few years, digital and inbound have matured and we’ve learned a few lessons. Namely, when you stuff the top of your funnel with folks who downloaded a piece of content, it might take an act of divinity to move those folks through the funnel.

Without exactly the right mix of content, campaigns, and sales outreach, you can forget about decent conversion rates or a healthy funnel.

Or, you can stop thinking solely in terms of leads and start thinking about engaging the right people at the right accounts. This is where ABM comes in, and Engagio is leading the pack. Because ABM requires tight alignment between sales and marketing, Engagio has built a great platform for marketers and an equally great Salesforce widget for your reps to track account activity.

LinkedIn for Lead Gen and Retargeting

Okay so LinkedIn just rolled out native forms. If you run sponsored content programs already, you can now point to a LinkedIn form instead of your own.

I like being an early adopter so I’ve been giving it a try for one of my clients. I’m recommending it here because I’ve seen a boost in conversion: forms are pre-filled with the person’s LinkedIn data, thus removing friction, and the experience is seamless because they’re not leaving LinkedIn and bouncing to your landing page (you could also argue there’s less connection with your brand).

That said, the new lead gen forms are not without bugs (you can’t download leads in Chrome—only works in IE or Firefox), and the UX is not at all intuitive: you need an account manager to walk you through it once or twice.

Another huge offering from LinkedIn is retargeting through Matched Audiences. You can engage key accounts, prospects, and audiences with three new capabilities: website retargeting, account targeting, and contact targeting.

If your database is loaded with contacts who’ve gone cold and email isn’t cutting it, this is an effective way to reach them through targeted ads and content. And for visits to your website that haven’t converted, you’ll expand your reach on LinkedIn, which has the potential to be much more targeted than Google Display.

Plus LinkedIn is up to 500 million members, so.


Welp, if I didn’t believe in this product I wouldn’t be working here. Sponge is the only solution that ties planning with performance and analytics, and really helps even the most non-mathy marketer become revenue-focused and quantitative.

After a simple integration with Salesforce, login to Sponge and start playing with revenue targets and model budget scenarios to see marketing’s impact on the bottom line.

Sponge also provides reporting made for demand gen marketers, so you won’t have to rely on Salesforce reports and waiting around for the ops team to get you the data you need. Since Sponge gives you one place for plans, campaigns, and analytics, the whole team will be addicted before you know it.

If you’re a semi-neurotic serial refresher (no judgment here)—tracking campaign performance by the minute, running conversion rates, and contemplating the health and velocity of your funnel—Sponge is your new nerdy best friend.


If you use gift cards or other incentives to drive webinar registrants, survey completion, or any other point of engagement, I bet whatever you’re doing is pretty manual and not easy to track.

Rybbon changes all that. You can order through the Rybbon portal, set up your campaign, grab a token for Marketo, and you’re done. You can track when a gift is redeemed and schedule a sales follow up. The ease of use is one thing, but the lack of risk is also huge: if your allotted giftcards aren’t used, you can return them for a refund or order new gifts in any increment you need.

Try a survey that helps you get a better read on your customers and prospects, then offer the anonymous results in a follow up campaign. It’s a great way to boost engagement and get valuable insights at the same time.

So there you go, a few ideas to rally the team and try new initiatives that can move the needle in meaningful ways. Whether your summers are slow or not, a smart Q3 plan can set you up to crush Q4 and end the year strong.

Happy Hour Will Resume After Q2 Planning

FML it’s end of quarter again.

It’s late. I have so many tabs open I’ve lost track of where I am. This would be waaay better with wine (yanks laptop off docking station, runs for door).

I’m pretty sure you can relate to late nights during end-of-quarter planning. Of course we track throughout the quarter, but the EOQ round up is a big deal—and rightfully so. Your plan for the upcoming quarter is only as good as your audit of the past.

It helps to focus on a few key questions, like:

  • Did the company achieve its revenue target? What was marketing’s contribution?
  • Which campaigns generated the most leads? The fewest?
  • Which campaigns had the highest impact on pipeline?
  • How did the funnel perform compared to your assumptions?
  • Did anything unexpected happen? What and why?

Whether your team adheres to a lead target, an opp target, or an ABM strategy that focuses on engagement within key accounts, ask the right questions, get the answers, and document that data in your quarterly plan. When you gather the team for a marathon planning sesh, the “Look Back” slide should be your starting point—inviting the team to unpack what worked and what didn’t.

In this on-demand webinar, three CMOs discuss how they set the marketing vision, inspire their team, and create plans that drive growth. Watch Planning for Growth in 2017 now.

Stop. Start. Adjust.

Stop, Start, Adjust is an annual and quarterly exercise that forces brevity and clarity around where you’ve been and where you want to go. Assuming your lead and opp targets don’t fluctuate wildly from quarter to quarter and you know your goals, dedicate a session to outline the practices that need to go away completely, that need to begin in earnest, and that need to be optimized for better performance.

Here’s an example of how the exercise can take shape:

Once you’ve nailed Stop, Start, Adjust, move on to budget. Do you have the budget to support new initiatives or fine-tune what you already have? Can you reallocate anything from the Stop column? Here’s a few practical tips that’ll help you stay on track:

3 Guidelines to Throw on Your Whiteboard Right Now

1. Be bold enough to kill anything that isn’t working

Seriously. Do not be afraid of losing leads. If you have campaigns or channels that generate leads with abysmal conversion, take them out back and shoot them. Free up that budget to try something new. You have nothing to lose.

2. Revisit your target personas

Funny how we lose sight of who we’re actually marketing to in the midst of all the number crunching. Make sure everyone is clear on who your target personas are and aren’t—and evaluate whether your programs do a good job of reaching them. Be prepared to abandon generic offers that cater to everyone and no one.

3. Budget with agility

Start with the big buckets and assign budgets accordingly, then follow through with a budget review every two weeks and adjust as necessary. Give your team the freedom to spend smarter on campaigns that move the needle.


Planning doesn’t have to be painful. Read The Modern Marketer’s Guide to 2017 Planning and learn how to create effective plans, inspire your team, and put some damn fun back into B2B marketing.


Staying on Top of Your Metrics

Marketing plans vary so wildly from team to team, it’s amazing we have a common language at all. Yet how we codify our roles and our contribution to an organization are very similar—whether we’re B2B, B2C, or in entirely dissimilar industries.

What’s one thing we all have in common? The very real need to change quickly when we have to.

Marketing goals are tied to the goals of the business: if leads are lagging or not converting, you need to spot the problem and make changes. Access to real-time metrics is key to data-driven, agile marketing.

When planning for the year ahead, any marketing team should consider flexibility. Let’s say you plan to roll out two big campaigns in the first half of the year with multi-channel programs rolling up under those campaigns.

What if your campaigns are on track, but you’re not hitting the number of leads you planned? Your goals and themes won’t change, but your channels and strategies might have to—and that’s what agile marketing is about.

Apply the 80/20 rule to your marketing plan: 80% of your campaigns and activities should be planned in advance, while the remaining 20% can be committed later as you test, learn, and iterate.

For example, if social is proving ineffective for driving leads, you’ll need to rethink your social strategy or consider replacing it with another tactic to close the gap. A tight relationship with sales and a pulse on real-time metrics are key—if something’s not working, you need to react quickly to turn things around while there’s still time to impact pipeline.

The diagram below shows an example of opp targets, lead targets, and two BACs (big ass campaigns), with channels for promotion:

Your marketing plan will most likely include an estimate of how many leads you’ll generate from each channel for each campaign.

But what if the leads you bring in from content syndication don’t convert? And what if you hit a snag in your email marketing due to list exhaustion or a blacklist? Take it from experience, it can happen, and when it does, it’s ugly. You’ll need to find a way to close the lead gap as quickly as possible.

Looking back at the end of a quarter with a shrug, “Welp, that didn’t work. Should’ve done something else,” helps no one. But using the 80/20 rule, staying on top of your metrics, and planning for agility can. It’s your best bet at staying on track—no matter what comes your way.

What key metrics should you measure? Why should your marketing plan start with company revenue goals? Here you go: The Modern Marketer’s Guide to 2017 Planning.

Revenue-Driven Marketing

As marketers, we have seen the days come and pass where marketing was a necessary expense on the balance sheet. We now are tasked with answering the question, “how are you creating revenue?” This might be daunting to some, but to those ready to adopt the analytics side of marketing and answer this question, it can be very rewarding. Showing the brass at your company you are able to provide return on investment can give you more bargaining power for things like larger budgets and say strategic decisions.

The problem that most marketers are facing is how do they go from driving demand for their company, to instead focusing on driving revenue. There might not be any perfect answer to this question, but there are however a few best practices for marketers to keep in mind. In this post we will be covering five things marketers need to do in order to drive revenue.

1) Align Marketing and Sales

You can’t win the war if you are fighting amongst yourself. Aligning marketing a sales is important to ensure that customers are hearing a single coherent message throughout the selling process. To drive revenue, you need to control costs. When it comes to marketing and sales, if you’re unaligned and require large investments in each team, then you are not maximizing your return revenue potential. Simplify the process and minimize investment for both teams by joint planning, sharing goals, and having a clear resource allocation process. Remember that both sales and marketing have a common end goal and should be working together in order to reach it.

Sales & Marketing Alignment

Sales & Marketing Alignment (Source)

2) Scale Marketing Efforts with Results

Rather than thinking your marketing teams needs more investment to reach higher revenue goals, try challenging yourself, and your team, to meet revenue goals in order to receive investments. Sales teams generally have to meet quarterly quotas to get more investment in the team, so try and apply this philosophy to your marketing team. Double the amount of revenue you making and then invest that back into your marketing efforts. Too often we see people think they need more in order to reach goals when it might be a simpler option to try and bootstrap to drive revenue.

3) Measure the Right Analytics

When you are switching from a demand generation strategy to a revenue driven strategy it is important that you are tracking the right metrics. A demand waterfall is a great way to track how well your revenue strategy is doing. If you know that you want to increase revenue from last year by 60% then think about the metrics you need to track in order to meet that goal. Set performance for your waterfall such as site visitors, leads, opportunities, and lastly closed deals. If there is a weak link in your revenue strategy you will be able to spot it.

Demand Waterfall

Demand Waterfall

4) Set The Parameters of SLA’s (Service Level Agreements)

Again, if you are going to be successful in meeting your revenue goals it is important for marketing and sales to be on the same page. One of the best ways of doing this is to define your service level agreements. Maybe it is decided that marketing will provide leads to the sales only if they meet every aspect of a defined set of qualifications. This can help sales tailor their message to these prospects since they will all be from the same background. In return, maybe marketing decides that the sales team has to speak about a certain aspect of the company’s product or service in their sales pitch.

The most important SLA that should be agreed upon is when a lead is passed from marketing to sales. This is usually a high point of friction between the two teams so make it very clear when a lead goes from marketing to the sales team.

Free Service Level Agreement Templates – Download from Tidy Forms

5) The Customer is Still The Most Important Person

It is easy to forget about the most important thing when you are focused on turning a strong profit. The customer always has been, and always will be, the most important person for a company. If you do not optimize your marketing campaigns for the person buying your product or service, then there will not be a market for it. Make the process of buying your product or service as easy and as enjoyable as possible. Put yourself in your customer’s shoes and think about what they want, and then give it to them!

Satisfied Customers

Satisfied Customers (Source)

It is important to keep in mind that not every organization is the same, and yours might have different areas that will help lead to revenue generation. As a whole though, the topics covered in this post are a great starting point for most companies to start making the switch from just driving demand, to generating revenue. Try and strip away all the fluff of driving revenue and make it a simple process. Marketing is on-boarding and nurturing prospects until they are right for sales. If you accept that your end result needs to be a sale and that is the only thing that matter; then adopting a revenue-driven marketing strategy.

We as marketers are facing increasing pressure to show the benefits of our work on the bottom line of the balance sheet. Executives want to see that we’re creating sales for the company. Switching to a revenue marketing strategy is a great way to prove the marketing teams value to stakeholders.

To learn more about how to drive revenue for your company, sign up for The Marketing Machine Playbook, a two part eBook for building an integrated marketing system designed for growth.

The Marketing Machine Playbook

4 Visuals for your B2B Content Marketing Strategy

We all would like to improve on our open rates. How are we supposed to generate lead lists from our content if no one is opening and viewing our content? There is a simple way to get more eye balls on your content and it hasn’t been a secret for a long time. Adding visuals to your content can help not only improve your open rate; but it can also improve your bounce rate, time on page, and shares. All of those metrics are important to your content marketing strategy.

When creating content keep in mind how you can incorporate visuals seamlessly. The four visuals that I have found to be effective are infographics, gif’s, charts, and video’s. The human mind processes information much faster when looking at a graphic rather than reading it from a page. Having a graphic rather than text on a page makes your content more appealing to the eye as well, thus promoting a reader to share or at the least spend more time on the page. Would you rather read an essay or browse through an infographic? Yeah, that is what I thought. Stop pushing bland content! Let’s add some seasoning to your content and give it that kick it needs!

1) Infographic

Unless you have been living under a rock for the past five years, odds are you’ve heard of, or seen, an infographic. An infographic is a great way to supply readers with a large amount of data quickly and in an appealing way. Infographics are useful for more than just presenting information, they also do a great job at showing trends as opposed to an excel sheet. If you are looking to create an infographic I would suggest using Venngage. Venngage is a free infographic maker that I’ve used before with great success. It is much like Canva in that you can simply “drag and drop” items onto the page to create your infographic.

Infographic Visual

Infographic Visual (Source)

2) Gif

Gif stands for graphic interchange format. That sounds a lot fancier than it really is, as a gif really just an extension for a document much like .csv or .pdf. Having said that gif’s are a great way to stop and grab a viewer’s attention. Instead of a still image, a gif places stim images one after another in a repeating loop. This action is aimed at grabbing a viewer’s attention and getting them to stop and look.

 via GIPHY

3) Charts/Graphs

It is important to display information in an appealing way. The way in which you present information can lead to a better understanding. As mentioned with infographics, charts and graphs can help viewers have a better understanding of what the numbers are trying to say than if you were to present them in writing or an excel sheet. It is a lot easier to see a correlation between two numbers when they are presented in a chart then if you are shifting through an excel sheet with many different variables on it. When making a chart or graph keep make sure you are not presenting too much information so that the eye can get lost. Include only the essential information. Also, it is important to keep in mind a color scheme that fits with the graphic and flows easily throughout. This is generally done by combining warm and cool colors (back to our high school art classes) to the graphic to make it aesthetically pleasing.

B2B Marketing Chart Visual

B2B Marketing Chart Visual (Source)

4) Video

Video is already a big part of modern marketing and it will only continue to grow. Video allows for copious amounts of information to be consumed in a relatively quick timeframe. Rather than reading a 100-page book; you might be able to consume that information in about 15 minutes. The way the human mind works is that it can process images and sound much faster than it can process words from a page. If you have a piece of content such as an e-book, or long form blog, consider making it into a webinar or demo on the overall topic. This can take the overbearing feeling out of people who might fear that your 100-page e-book is not worth reading.

Top 10 Ways to Make a Great Video (

I am a strong believer that you can take good content and make it great. One of the best ways to do this is by attaching visuals to it. Doing more to enhance the experience of your viewers is always a good idea. Yes, it is going to take more time to create your content, but if you are already creating content why not make it great and get the most out of it by adding visuals to it? Don’t waste your time and effort by making boring content that doesn’t keep a reader’s attention, spice it up with some visuals!

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Want more great insight from Sponge? Follow us on Twitter where we share our own blog posts as well as many more great post about the latests in B2B marketing!

Should B2B Marketers Even Care About Social?

Social media is a core component of any inbound marketing strategy, but it’s often challenging to draw a straight line from social activity to actual conversions, let alone sales pipeline and revenue. LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook have all been very vocal about their products for business as they struggle to monetize their offerings, but do these products actually work for B2B marketers? In this post, we’ll explore some of the most popular social advertising tactics available and offer guidance on how to leverage them to support your demand generation efforts.

Shop Now / Buy Button

The influx of shop now, or buy buttons, to social media sites has seen exponential growth in the past year. Facebook and Twitter have been at the forefront of this movement, but even Pinterest has made its way into the space with their “buyable pins”. These are the sponsored, or company “post”, that show up in your timeline with the option to click on a link and be taken directly to the checkout process for that item.

Essentially the function of this button in social media for B2B marketers and others, is to have a channel to better capture impulse buys from consumers. The target market is individuals who are likely to make a purchase without doing much research. The thought is if you put your product or service in front of them, they are going to buy it.

The Twitter Buy Now button shows up within a tweet next to the image, and the idea is to capitalize on someone’s interest as they’re “browsing” their feed, such that they can actually buy your product without ever having to leave Twitter. Here’s an example from Brit + Co:

B2B Marketers

Facebook Calls to Action works in much the same way, where ads show up directly in your newsfeed. While both platforms enable you to target specific demographics, the information is a lot richer in Facebook, so your ability to hone in on exactly who you want is much greater. Here’s an example of Facebook Calls to Action using their Carousel format, where you can present multiple messaging points or offers that still focus around one CTA.

B2B Marketers

Do they work? The Shop Now / Buy button is a good option for B2C companies selling relatively low cost goods, but it’s less likely they’ll be effective for B2B marketers who’s companies generally have higher priced offerings and/or a longer sales cycle. If your prospect isn’t able to make the mental leap to convert within 30 seconds, this probably isn’t the best option. That said, if you have a fairly visual product and offer a demo or a free trial, I’d be interested to see if this would work even for B2B brands.

Promoted Tweets

The promoted tweet was Twitter’s first foray into paid products for business. The concept is simple – it’s a tweet that you pay to distribute across the Twitter feeds of the users you care about. The call to action is whatever link you include in your tweet, so you’d measure success by the number of clicks, conversions, and follows.

B2B Marketers

Do they work? In my experience, Promoted Tweets rarely work for demand generation. If you’re looking to get more followers and increase brand awareness, and you think a lot of your potential customers are on Twitter, this may be worthwhile, otherwise I’d skip it.

LinkedIn Sponsored Updates & Paid InMails

LinkedIn is clearly the most business-oriented social network, and they offer several different products to advertise your company or product on LinkedIn, including text ads, display ads, sponsored updates, and paid InMails. Sponsored Updates are very similar to Promoted Tweets, in that they’re sponsored posts that show up directly in your newsfeed. You can target based on several different fields, including title, job function, company size, geography, skills, groups, and more. Here’s an example from Hubspot:

B2B Marketers

Do they work? Of all of the tactics listed here, I’ve had the most success with LinkedIn Sponsored Updates. The targeting abilities on LinkedIn are unmatched, enabling you to be very granular in your advertising segments. I have found they work better for ebooks and blog posts vs. trials and demos, but that’s not super surprising. I’ve tried InMails with mixed success. They used to be very expensive, so it was tough to generate a positive ROI. They’ve come down in cost, but I’m still not sure this is where I’d start for B2B marketers. If you do go this route, make sure you’re disciplined in your segmentation, and keep your message short and informal. I’d also recommend asking people to reply to your message vs. going to a form (which will make the message feel more spammy).

Share Buttons

So share buttons have been around forever and instead of you advertising your stuff on LinkedIn/Twitter/Facebook, share buttons enable prospects to share your content with their connections. Share buttons are not only a good source of promotion for your product or service, but they also enable you to get a better sense of who your target market is by reviewing who is sharing your content. Share buttons are often used on landing pages, blog posts, and email, like this:

B2B Marketers

B2B Marketers

Do they work? I know a lot of people will say otherwise, and that it doesn’t *hurt* to put social share buttons all over the place, but I’d advise B2B marketers to NOT include them on their landing pages or email newsletter, but DO include them on thank you pages and blog posts. Why? It all goes back to why people share stuff in the first place – to entertain, to impress, and to teach. Someone has to find value in your content before they’ll mark it as entertaining or educational. A conversion is a value signal, so it only makes sense to ask people to share your content after they’ve converted. Check out this example of a webinar thank you page, where the user is asked to invite his colleagues via email and social media. This is a perfect opportunity to use social share because he’s already shown interest in a pretty strong offer, and generally you don’t want to confuse webinar registrants with secondary CTAs like a trial or demo before they actually attend the live event.

B2B Marketers

Social Logins

Social logins enable your prospects to automatically fill in forms with information stored on their social profiles. In theory it increases your conversion rate because even long forms can be completed in one click.

B2B Marketers

Do they work? Results on social logins are mixed. For account registration, I think it’s a no brainer, where you’re trying to lower the bar for a relatively high hurdle (i.e. start using a new product). For white papers and ebooks, I think it’s adding some unnecessary complexity, and actually I’ve seen people use social logins as an excuse to put a LOT of questions on their forms (one of my past client insisted on asking 14 questions just to download a white paper). Having too long of a sign-in form obviously can deter potential clients from finish the process, Hubspot ranks long forms as the fourth strongest reason people don’t finish forms. Standard best practice still applies – ask as few questions as you need to move a prospect to the next step, and not a single one beyond that. From my experience, even if you have social logins built into your forms, visitors can still be overwhelmed by a ton of questions, so it’s best to keep it lean to maximize your conversion rates.


Okay we went through this stuff…while social has traditionally been relegated to brand awareness, there are some promising opportunities for demand generation, particularly on LinkedIn. So now, what other opportunities are there for B2B marketers on social? Share your own tips and lessons learned in the comments.

To learn how social fits into the modern marketing mix, sign up for The Marketing Machine Playbook, an 18-week series for building an integrated marketing system designed for growth.

How to Create a Marketing Budget [Excel Template]

In this post, I’ll go over how to create a marketing budget and track expenses throughout the year. Managing a budget requires discipline and easy access to the right information, so I’ve created this handy Marketing Budget Excel Template to make life easier. Basically I’ve spent hours creating formulas, formatting cells, and tinkering with design so you don’t have to! If you decide to use it, definitely let me know how it works for you and what you would change – spreadsheets are living documents and I like stealing leveraging other people’s ideas to make them better.

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